ucla epss geochem

Publications (most peer-reviewed papers listed here)

  1. Young E.D., Kohl I.E., Sherwood Lollar B., Etiope G., Rumble D. III, Li S., Haghnegahdar M.A.*, Schauble E.A., McCain K.A*., Foustoukos D.I., Sutclife C., Warr O., Ballentine C.J., Onstott T.C., Hosgormez H., Neubeck A., Marques J.M., Pérez-Rodríguez I., Rowe A.R., LaRowe D.E., Magnabosco C., Yeung L.Y., Ash J.L.*, and Bryndzia L.T. (2017) The relative abundances of resolved 12CH2D2 and 13CH3D and mechanisms controlling isotopic bond ordering in abiotic and biotic methane gas. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 203, 235-264.

  2. Xu S., Zuckerman B., Dufour P., Young E.D., Klein B., and Jura M. (2017) The chemical composition of an extrasolar Kuiper-Belt object. Astrophysical Journal Letters 836:L7, doi:10.3847/2041-8213/836/1/L7.

  3. Barboni M., Boehnke P., Keller B., Kohl I., Schoene B., Young E.D., and McKeegan K.D. (2017) Early formation of the Moon 4.51 billion years ago. Science Advances 3, e1602365.

  4. Yeung L.Y., Murray L.T., Ash J.L., Young E.D., Boering K.A., Atlas E.L., Schauffler S.M., Lueb R.A., Langenfelds R.L., Krummel P.B., Steele L.P., and Eastham S.D. (2016) Isotopic ordering in atmospheric O2 as a tracer of ozone photochemistry and the tropical atmosphere.The Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121, 129, doi:10.1002/2016JD025455.

  5. Young E.D.(2016) Bayes' theorem and early solar short-lived radionuclides: the case for an unexceptional origin for the solar system. The Astrophysical Journal 826, 129, doi:10.3847/0004-637X/826/2/129.

  6. Menold C.A., Grove M., Sievers N.E., Manning C.E., Yin A., Young E.D., and Ziegler K. (2016) Argon, oxygen, and boron isotopic evidence documenting 40ArE accumulation in phengite during water-rich high-pressure subduction metasomatism of continental crust. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 446, 56-67.

  7. Young E.D., Rumble D. III, Freedman P., and Mills M. (2016) A large-radius high-mass-resolution multiple-collector isotope ratio mass spectrometer for analysis of rare isotopologues of O2, N2, and CH4 and other gases. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 401, 1-10.

  8. Young E.D., Kohl I.E., Warren P.H., Rubie D.C., Jacobson S.A., and Morbidelli A. (2016) Oxygen isotopic evidence for vigorous mixing during the Moon-forming giant impact. Science 351, 493-496.

  9. Smith R.L., Pontoppidan K.M., Young E.D., and Morris M.R. (2015) Heterogeneity in 12CO/13CO abundance ratios toward solar-type young stellar objects. The Astrophysical Journal 813, 16p.

  10. Chemtob S.M., Rossman G.R., Young E.D., Ziegler K., Moynier F., Eiler J.M., and Hurowitz J.A. (2015) Silicon isotope systematics of acidic weathering of fresh basalts, Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 169, 63-81.

  11. Yeung L.Y., Ash J.L., and Young E.D. (2015) Biological signatures in clumped isotopes of O2. Science 348, 431-434.

  12. Macris C.A., Manning C.E., and Young E.D. (2015) Crystal chemical constraints on inter-mineral Fe isotope fractionation and implications for Fe isotope disequilibrium in San Carlos mantle xenoliths. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 154, 168-185.

  13. Jewitt D. and Young E.D. (2015) Oceans from the Skies. Scientific American March 2015, 36-43. (for the public)

  14. Luu T-H., Young E.D., Gounelle M., Chaussidon M. (2015) Short time interval for condensation of high-temperature silicates in the solar accretion disk. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112, 1298-1303.

  15. Jura M., Dufour P., Xu S., Zuckerman B., Klein B., Young E. D., and Melis C. (2015) Evidence for an anhydrous carbonaceous extrasolar minor planet. The Astrophysical Journal 799:109, 9 pp., doi:10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/109

  16. Young E.D., Manning C.E., Schauble E.A., Shahar A., Macris C.A., Lazar C., and Jordan M. (2015) High-temperature equilibrium isotope fractionation of non-traditional stable isotopes: Experiments, theory, and applications. Chemical Geology 395, 176-195.

  17. Rubie D.C., Jacobson S.A., Morbidelli A., O'Brien D.P., Young E.D., de Vries J., Nimmo F., Palme H., and Frost D.J. (2015) Accretion and differentiation of the terrestrial planets with implications for the compositions of early-formed Solar System bodies and accretion of water. Icarus 248, 89-108.

  18. Bell E.A., Harrison T.M., Kohl I.E., and Young E.D. (2014) Eoarchean crustal evolution of the Jack Hills zircon source and loss of Hadean crust. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 146, 27-42.

  19. Petrizzo D.A., Young E.D., and Runnegar B.N. (2014) Implications of high-precision measurements of 13C-18O bond ordering in CO2 for thermometry in modern bivalved mollusc shells. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 142, 400-410.

  20. Yeung L.Y., Ash J.L., and Young E.D. (2014) Rapid photochemical equilibration of isotope bond ordering in O2. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119, doi:10.1002/2014-JD021909.

  21. Jura M., Klein B., Xu S., and Young E.D. (2014) A pilot search for evidence of extrasolar Earth-analog plate tectonics. The Astrophysical Journal Letters 791:L29, doi:10.1088/2041-8205/791/2/L29.

  22. Jura M. and Young E.D. (2014) Extrasolar Cosmochemistry. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science 42, 45-67.

  23. Petrizzo D.A. and Young E.D. (2014) High-precision determination of 13C-18O bonds in CO2 using multicollector peak hopping. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 28, 1185-1193.

  24. Young E.D., Yeung L.Y., and Kohl I.E. (2014) On the Δ 17O budget of atmospheric O2. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 135, 102-125.

  25. Young E.D. (2014) Inheritance of solar short- and long-lived radionuclides from molecular clouds and the unexceptional nature of the solar system. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 392, 16-27.

  26. Jura M., Xu S., and Young E.D. (2013) 26Al in the early solar system: not so unusual after all. The Astrophysical Journal Letters 775:L41, doi: 10.1088/2041-8205/775/2/L41.

  27. Macris C.A., Young E.D., and Manning C.E. (2013) Experimental determination of equilibrium magnesium isotope fractionation between spinel, forsterite, and magnesite from 600 to 800 C. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 118, 18-32.

  28. Bischoff A., Dyl K.A., Horstmann M., Ziegler K., Wimmer K., Young E.D. (2013) Reclassification of Villalbeto de la Pena -Occurrence of a winonaite-related fragment in a hydrothermally metamorphosed polymict L-chondritic breccia. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 48, 628-640.

  29. Zhou Q., Yin Q-Z, Young E.D., Li X-H, Wu F-Y, Li Q-L, Liu Y., and Tang G-Q (2013) SIMS Pb-Pb and U-Pb age determination of eucrite zircons at < 5 um scale and the first 50 Ma of the thermal history of Vesta. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 110, 152-175.

  30. Jenniskens P. et al. (2012) Radar-enbaled recovery of the Sutter's Mill meteorite, a carbonaceous chondrite regolith breccia. Science 338, 1583-1587.

  31. Lazar C., Young E.D., and Manning C.E. (2012) Experimental determination of equilibrium nickel isotope fractionation between metal and silicate from 500 C to 950 C. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 86, 276-295.

  32. Dyl K.A., Bischoff A., Ziegler K., Young E.D., Wimmer K., and Bland P.A. (2012) Early Solar System hydrothermal activity in chondritic asteroids on 1-10-year timescales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109, 18306-18311.

  33. Yeung L.Y., Young E.D., and Schauble E.A. (2012) Measurements of 18O18O and 17O18O in the atmosphere and the role of isotpe-exchange reactions. Journal of Geophysical Research 117, D18306,doi:10.1029/2012JD017992.

  34. Yeung L.Y., Berelson W.M., Young E.D., Prokopenko M.G., Rollins N., Coles V.J., Montoya J.P., Carpenter E.J., Steinberg D.K., Foster R.A., Capone D.G., and Yager P.L. (2012) Impact of diatom-diazotroph associations on carbon export in the Amazon River plume. Geophysical Research Letters 39, L18609,doi:10.1029/2012GL053356.

  35. Young E.D., Dyl K.A., and Simon J.I. (2012) Response to the Comment by S.B. Simon, L. Grossman, and S.R. Sutton on "Valence state of titanium in the Wark-Lovering rim of a Leoville CAI as a record of progressive oxidation in the early Solar Nebula. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 85, 377-382.

  36. Shahar A., Hillgren V.J., Young E.D., Fei Y., Macris c.A., and Dent L. (2011) High-temperature Si isotope fractionation between iron metal and silicate. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75, 7688-7697.

  37. Bell E., Harrison T.M., McCulloch M.T. and Young E.D. (2011) Early Archean crustal evolution of the Jack Hills Zircon source terrane inferred from Lu-Hf, 207Pb/206Pb, and δ18O systematics of Jack Hills zircons. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75, 4816-4829.

  38. Simon J.I. and Young E.D. (2011) Resetting, errorchrons and the meaning of the canonical CAI initial 26Al/27Al. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 304, 468-482.

  39. Rumble D. III, Young E.D., Shahar A. and Guo W.F. (2011) Stable isotope cosmochemistry and the evolution of planetary systems. Elements 7, 23-28.

  40. Young E.D., Gounelle M., Smith R.A., Morris M.R., and Pontoppidan K.M. (2011) Astronomical oxygen isotopic evidence for supernova enrichment of the solar system birth environment by propagating star formation. The Astrophysical Journal 729, 43.

  41. Dyl K.A., Simon J.I., and Young E.D. (2011) Valence state of titanium in the Wark-Lovering rim of a Leoville CAI as a record of progressive oxidation in the early Solar Nebula. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75, 937-949.

  42. Hill P.S., Schauble E.A., and Young E.D. (2010) The effects of changing solution chemistry on Fe3+/Fe2+ isotope fractionation in aqueous Fe-Cl solutions. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74, 6669-6689.

  43. Black J.R., John S., Young E.D., and Kavner A. (2010) Effect of temperature and mass transport on transition metal isotope fractionation during electroplating. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74, 5187-5201.

  44. Ziegler K., Young E.D., Schauble E.A. and Wasson J.T. (2010) Metal-silicate silicon isotope fractionation in enstatite meteorites and constraints on Earth's core formation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 74, 809-817.

  45. Black J.R., Young E.D., and Kavner A. (2010) Electrochemically controlled iron isotope fractionation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74, 809-817.

  46. Young E.D., Tonui E., Manning C.E., Schauble E., and Macris C.A. (2009) Spinel-olivine magnesium isotope thermometry in the mantle and implications for the Mg isotopic composition of Earth. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 288, 524-533.

  47. Shahar A., Ziegler K., Young E.D., Ricolleau A., Schauble E.A., and Fei Y.W. (2009) Experimentally determined Si isotope fractionation between silicate and Fe metal and implications for Earth's core formation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 288, 228-234.

  48. Kavner A., Shahar A., Black J., and Young E.D. (2009) Iron isotope electroplating: diffusion-limited fractionation Chemical Geology 267, 131-138.

  49. Smith R.L., Pontoppidan K.M., Young E.D., Morris M.R., and van Dishoeck E.F. (2009) High-precision C17O, C18O and C16O measurements in young stellar objects: analogues for CO self shielding in the early Solar System The Astrophysical Journal 701, 163-175.

  50. Federman S.R. and Young E.D. (2009) Comment on "Experimental test of self-shielding in vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of CO." Science 324, DOI: 10.1126/science.1169923.

  51. Hill P.S., Schauble E.A., Shahar A., Tonui E., and Young E.D. (2009) Experimental studies of equilibrium iron isotope fractionation in ferric aquochloro complexes Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73, 2366-2381.

  52. Gounelle M., Morbidelli A., Bland P.A., P. Spurny, Young E.D. and Sephton M. (2008) Meteorites from the outer Solar System? The Solar System Beyond Neptune (A. Barucci et al., eds.), University of Arizona Space Science Series, 525-541.

  53. Kouchinsky A., Bengston S., Gallet Y., Korovnikov I., Pavlov V., Runnegar B., Shields G., Young E., and Ziegler K. (2008) The SPICE carbon isotope esxcursion in Siberia: a combined study of the upper Middle Cambrian-lowermost Ordovician Kulyumbe River section, northwestern Siberian Platform Geological Magazine 145, 609-622.

  54. Young E.D., Kuramoto K., Marcus R.A., Yurimoto H., and jacobsen S.B. (2008) Mass-independent oxygen isotope variations in the solar nebula Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 68, (MacPherson et al. eds.), Mineralogical Society of America, Washington DC, 187-218.

  55. Shahar A., Young E.D., and Manning C.E. (2008) Equilibrium high-temperature Fe isotope fractionation between fayalite and magnetite: an experimental calibration. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 268, 330-338.

  56. Rubin A.E., Ziegler K., and Young E.D. (2008) Size scales over which ordinary chondrites and their parent asteroids are homogeneous in oxidation state and oxygen isotopic composition. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72, 948-958.

  57. Young E.D. (2007) Time-dependent oxygen isotopic effects of CO self shielding across the solar protoplanetary disk. Earth and Planetary Sciene Letters 262, 468-483.

  58. Young E.D. (2007) Strange Water in the Solar System. Science 317, 211-212.

  59. Shahar A. and Young E.D. (2007) Astrophysics of CAI formation as revealed by silicon isotope LA-MC-ICPMS of an igneous CAI. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 257, 497-510 .

  60. Trail D., Mojzsis S.J., Harrison T.M., Schmitt A.K., and Young E.D. (2007) Constraints on Hadean zircon protoliths from oxygen isotopes, Ti-thermometry, and rare earth elements. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems (G cubed) 8, (in press).

  61. Gounelle M., Young E.D., Shahar A., Tonui E., and Kearsley A. (2007) Magnesium isotopic constraints on the origin of CB b chondritis. Earth and Planetary Science letters 256 , 521-533.

  62. Simon J.I., Reid M.R., and Young E.D. (2007) Lead isotopes by LA-MC-ICPMS: Tracking the emergence of mantle signatures in an evolving silicic magma system. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71 , 2014-2035.

  63. Brownlee D., Tsou P., Aléon J., …, Young E.D. (alphabetical, 76 th author), et al. (2006) Comet 81P/Wild 2 under a microscope. Science 314 , 1711-1716.

  64. McKeegan KD, Aléon J., Bradley J., Brownlee D., Busemann H.,…,Young E.D. (alphabetical, 43rd author), Ziegler K., Zimmermann L., and Zinner E. (2006) Isotopic composition of cometary matter returned by Stardust. Science 314 , 1724-1728.

  65. Van Acker M.R.M.D., Shahar A., Young E.D., and Coleman M.L. (2006) A rapid, precise and sensitive GC-MC-ICPMS method for chlorine stable isotope analysis of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons. Analytical Chemistry 78 , 4663-4667..

  66. Simon J. I., Young E. D., Russell S. S., Tonui E. K., Dyl K. A., and Manning C. E. (2005) A short timescale for changing oxygen fugacity in the solar nebula revealed by high-resolution 26Al- 26Mg dating of CAI rims. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 238 (3-4), 272-283.

  67. Lyons J.R. and Young E.D. (2005) Photochemical speciation of oxygen isotopes in the solar nebula. In Chondrites and the Protoplanetary Disk (Krot, Scot, and Reipurth eds.), ASP Conference Series 341 , 193-211.

  68. Lyons J. R., and Young E. D. (2005) CO self-shielding as the origin of oxygen isotope anomalies in the early solar nebula. Nature 435 , 317-320.

  69. Airieau S.A. , Farquhar J., Thiemens M.H., Leshin L.A., Bao H., and Young E. (2005) Planetesimal sulphate and aqueous alteration in CM and CI carbonaceous chondrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 69 (16), 4166-4171.

  70. Kavner A., Bonet F., Shahar A., Simon J., and Young E. (2005) The isotopic effects of electron transfer: An explanation for Fe isotope fractionation in nature. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 69 (12), 2971-2979.

  71. Kouchinsky A., Bengtson S., Pavlov V., Runnegar B., Val'kov A., and Young E. (2005) Pre-Tommotian age of the lower Pestrotsvet Formation in the Selinde section on the Siberian platform: carbon isotopic evidence. Geological Magazine 142 (4), 319-325.

  72. Young E. D., Simon J. I., Galy A., Russell S. S., Tonui E., Lovera O. (2005) Supra-canonical 26Al/27Al and the residence time of CAIs in the solar protoplanetary disk. Science 308 , 223-227.

  73. Young E. D. and Galy A. (2004) The isotope geochemistry and cosmochemistry of magnesium. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 55 (Johnson C.M. et al. eds.), Mineralogical Society of America , Washington DC , 197-230.

  74. Young E. D., Zhang K.K., Schubert G. (2003) Conditions for pore water convection within carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies – implications for planetesimal size and heat production. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 213 , 249-259.

  75. McSween H. Y., Ghosh A., Grimm R. E., Wilson L., Young E. D. (2003) Thermal Evolution Models of Asteroids. In . Bottke William F. Jr. et al . (eds.) Asteroids III. University of Arizona Press, Tucson , 559-572.

  76. Young E. D., Galy A., and Nagahara H. (2002) Kinetic and equilibrium mass-dependent fractionation laws in nature and their geochemical and cosmochemical significance. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 66 , 1095-1104.

  77. Young E. D., Ash R. D., Galy A., and Belshaw N. S. (2002) Mg isotope heterogeneity in the Allende meteorite measured by UV laser ablation-MC-ICPMS and comparisons with O isotopes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 66 , 683-698.

  78. Jones A. M., O'Connell T. C., Young E. D., Scott K., Buckingham C.M., Iacumin P., and Brasier M. D. (2001) Biogeochemical data from well preserved 200 ka collagen and skeletal remains. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 193 , 143-149.

  79. Young E. D. (2001) Reply to ‘Comment on assessing the implications of K isotope cosmochemistry for evaporation in the preplanetary solar nebula by E. Young'. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 192 , 101-107.

  80. Young E. D. (2001) The hydrology of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies and the evolution of planet progenitors. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 359 , 2095-2110.

  81. Zhu X.n, Guo Y., O'Nions R. K., Young E. D., and Ash R. D. (2001) Isotopic homogeneity of iron in the early solar nebula. Nature 412 , 311-313.

  82. Galy A., Young E. D., Ash R. D., and O'Nions R. K. (2000) The formation of chondrules at high pressures in the early solar system. Science 290 , 1751-1753.

  83. Young E. D. (2000) Assessing the implications of K isotope cosmochemistry for evaporation in the pre-planetary solar nebula. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 183 , 321-333.

  84. Young E. D., Ash R. D., England P., and Rumble D.III (1999) Fluid flow in chondrite parent bodies: deciphering the compositions of planetesimals. Science 286 , 1331-1335.

  85. Jones A. M., Iacumin P., and Young E. D. (1999) High-resolution δ 18O analysis of biogenic phosphate by GC-irms and UV laser fluorination. Chemical Geology 153 , 241-248.

  86. Young E. D. and Russell S.S. (1998) Oxygen reservoirs in the early solar nebula inferred from an Allende CAI. Science 282 , 452-455.

  87. Young E. D., Nagahara H., Mysen B. O., Audet D. M. (1998) Non-Rayleigh oxygen isotope fractionation by mineral evaporation: theory and experiments in the system SiO 2 . Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 62 , 3109-3116.

  88. Young E. D., Coutts D. W., and Kapitan D. (1998) UV laser ablation and irm-GCMS microanalysis of 18O/16O and 17O/16O with application to a calcium-aluminium-rich inclusion from the Allende meteorite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 62 , 3161-3168.

  89. Young E. D., Fogel M. L., Rumble D. III, and Hoering T. C. (1998) Isotope-ratio-monitoring of O2 for microanalysis of 18O/16O and 17O/16O in geological materials. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 62 , 3087-3094.

  90. Rumble D. III, Farquhar J., Young E.D., and Christensen C.P. (1997) In situ oxygen isotope analysis with an excimer laser using F2 and BrF5 reagents and 02 gas as analyte. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 61 , 4229-4234.

  91. Young E.D., Virgo D., and Popp R.K. (1997) Eliminating closure in mineral formulae with specific application to amphiboles. American Mineralogist 82 , 790-806.

  92. Young E.D. (1995) Fluid flow in metamorphic environments. Rev. Geophys. Suppl. U.S. National Report to IUGG 1991-1994, 41-52.

  93. Young E.D. (1993) On the 18O/16O record of reaction progress in open and closed metamorphic systems. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 117 , 147-167.

  94. Young E.D., and Rumble D. III (1993) The origin of correlated variations in in situ 18O/16O and elemental concentrations in metamorphic garnet from southeastern Vermont. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 57 , 2585-2597.

  95. Young E.D., and Morrison J.M. (1992) Relations among net-transfer reaction progress, 13C- 18O depletion, and fluid infiltration in a clinohumite-bearing marble. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 111 , 391-408.

  96. Young E.D., Wooden J.L., Shieh Y.N., and Farber D. (1992) Geochemical evolution of Jurassic diorites from the Bristol Lake region, California USA and the role of assimilation. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 110 , 68-86.

  97. Young E.D. (1989) Petrology of biotite-cordierite-garnet gneiss of the McCullough Range, Nevada II. P-T-a H20 path and growth of cordierite during late stages of low-P granulite-grade metamorphism. Journal of Petrology 30 , 61-78.

  98. Young E.D., Anderson J.L., Clarke H.S., and Thomas W.M. (1989) Petrology of biotite-cordierite-garnet gneiss of the McCullough Range, Nevada I. Evidence for Proterozoic low-pressure fluid-absent granulite-grade metamorphism in the southern Cordillera. Journal of Petrology 30 , 39-60.

  99. Anderson J.L., Barth A.P., Young E.D., Davis M. J., Farber D., Hayes E.M., and Johnson K.A. (1989) Plutonisin across the Tujunga-North American terrane boundary: A middle to upper crustal view of two juxtaposed magmatic arcs. In Proceedings of the 8th, International Conference on Basement Tectonics (eds. Bartholomew M.J., Hyndman D.W., Mogk D.W., and Mason R.), 211-235. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht , Netherlands .

  100. Anderson J.L., Barth A.P., and Young E. D. (1988) Mid-crustal Cretaceous roots of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes. Geology 16 , 366-69.

  101. Thomas W.M., Clarke H.S., Young E.D., Orrell S.E., and Anderson J.L. (1988) Proterozoic high-grade metamorphism in the Colorado River region, Nevada, Arizona, and California. In Metamorphism and Crustal Evolution of the Western Conterminous United States (ed. Ernst W.G.), 526-537. Rubey Volume VII.