|Title:||Crustal‐scale recycling in caldera complexes and rift zones along the Yellowstone hotspot track: O and Hf isotopic evidence in diverse zircons from voluminous rhyolites of the Picabo volcanic field, Idaho|
|Authors:||D. L. Drew, I.N. Bindeman, K. E. Watts, A. K. Schmitt, B. Fu, and M. McCurry|
|Publication:||Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, v. 381, p. 63‐77.|
We synthesize our new datasets with published Ar‐Ar geochronology to establish the eruptive framework of the Picabo volcanic field, and interpret its petrogenetic history in the context of other well‐studied caldera complexes in the SRP. Caldera complex evolution at Picabo began with eruption of the 10.44 ± 0.27 Ma (U‐Pb) Tuff of Arbon Valley (TAV), a chemically zoned and normal‐δO (\deltaO magma=7.9‰) unit with high, zoned 87Sr/86Sri (0.71488‐0.72520), and low‐εNd(0) (−18) and ε Hf(0) (−28). The TAV and an associated post caldera lava flow possess the lowest εNd(0) (‐23), indicating ‐40‐60% derivation from the Archean upper crust. Normal‐δO rhyolites were followed by a series of lower−\deltaO eruptions with more typical (lower crustal) Sr‐Nd‐Hf isotope ratios and whole rock chemistry. The voluminous 8.25± 0.26 Ma West Pocatello rhyolite has the lowest δO value (\deltaOmelt=3.3‰), and we correlate it to a 1,000 m thick intracaldera tuff present in the INEL‐1 borehole (with published zircon ages 8.04‐8.35 Ma, and similarly low‐δO zircon values). The significant (4−5‰) decrease in magmatic−δO values in Picabo rhyolites is accompanied by an increase in zircon \deltaO heterogeneity from −1‰ variation in the TAV to >5 permil variation in the late‐stage low‐δO rhyolites, a trend similar to what is characteristic of Heise and Yellowstone, and which indicates remelting of variably hydrothermally altered tuffs followed by rapid batch assembly prior to eruption. However, due to the greater abundance of low−\deltaO rhyolites at Picabo, the eruptive framework may reflect an intertwined history of caldera collapse and coeval Basin and Range rifting and hydrothermal alteration. We speculate that the source rocks with pre‐existing low‐δO alteration may be related to: (1) deeply buried and unexposed older deposits of Picabo‐age or Twin Falls‐age low‐\delta 18O volcanics; and/or (2) regionally‐abundant late Eocene Challis volcanics, which were hydrothermally altered near the surface prior to or during peak Picabo magmatism. Basin and Range extension, specifically the formation of metamorphic core complexes exposed in the region, could have facilitated the generation of low‐\deltaO magmas by exhuming heated rocks and creating the large water‐rock ratios necessary for shallow hydrothermal alteration of tectonically (rift zones) and volcanically (calderas) buried volcanic rocks. These interpretations highlight the major processes by which supereruptive volumes of magma are generated in the SRP, mechanisms applicable to producing rhyolites worldwide that are facilitated by plume driven volcanism and extensional tectonics.